Voluntary Society - Conditioning - Conspiracy

Martial Law Preparation and Internment Camps

2007 National Defense Authorization Act overturns Posse Comitatus Act

Global Research, March 21, 2007

"Paradoxically, preserving liberty may require the rule of a single leader--a dictator--willing to use those dreaded 'extraordinary measures,' which few know how, or are willing, to employ." -- Michael Ledeen, White House advisor and fellow of the American Enterprise Institute, "Machiavelli on Modern Leadership: Why Machiavelli's Iron Rules Are As Timely and Important Today As Five Centuries Ago"

"Gen. Tommy Franks says that if the United States is hit with a weapon of mass destruction that inflicts large casualties, the Constitution will likely be discarded in favor of a military form of government." -- NewsMax, November 21, 2003

In October 2006, Bush signed into law the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007. Quietly slipped into the law at the last minute, at the request of the Bush administration, were sections changing important legal principles, dating back 200 years, which limit the U.S. government's ability to use the military to intervene in domestic affairs. These changes would allow Bush, whenever he thinks it necessary, to institute martial law--under which the military takes direct control over civilian administration.

Sec. 1042 of the Act, "Use of the Armed Forces in Major Public Emergencies," effectively overturns what is known as posse comitatus. The Posse Comitatus Act is a law, passed in 1878, that prohibits the use of the regular military within the U.S. borders. The original passage of the Posse Comitatus Act was a very reactionary move that sealed the betrayal of Black people after the Civil War and brought the period of Reconstruction to an end. It decreed that federal troops could no longer be used inside the former Confederate states to enforce the new legal rights of Black people. Black people were turned over to the armed police and Klansmen serving the southern plantation owners, and the long period of Jim Crow began.

During the 20th century, posse comitatus objectively started to play a new role within the bourgeois democratic framework: as a legal barrier to the direct influence of the powerful military establishment and the armed forces over domestic U.S. society. It served to some degree as an obstacle against military coups and presidents seizing military control over the country. (However, National Guard troops have been legally available to the ruling class for use inside the U.S., and there have been other loopholes to the prohibition of the use of armed forces domestically, as in the mobilization of Marine troops during the 1992 L.A. Rebellion.)

So the changes to posse comitatus signed into law by Bush are extremely significant and ominous. Bush has modified the main exemptions to posse comitatus that up to now have been primarily defined by the Insurrection Act of 1807. Previously the president could call out the army in the United States only in cases of insurrection or conditions where "rebellion against the authority of the United States, make it impracticable to enforce the laws of the United States in any State or Territory by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings." Under the new law the president can use the military in response to a natural disaster, a disease outbreak, a terrorist attack or "other condition in which the President determines that domestic violence has occurred to the extent that state officials cannot maintain public order."

The new law requires the President to notify Congress "as soon as practicable after the determination and every 14 days thereafter during the duration of the exercise of the authority." However Bush, as he has often done during his presidency, modified this requirement in his signing statement, which declared, "The executive branch shall construe such provisions in a manner consistent with the President's constitutional authority to withhold information the disclosure of which could impair foreign relations, the national security, the deliberative processes of the Executive." In other words, Bush claims that he does not even need to inform Congress that martial law has been declared!

Changing Role of Military Within the U.S.

This major change in the criteria under which martial law can be declared is a continuation of a process, begun after 9/11, to dismantle legal barriers to unrestrained executive, presidential powers.

In 2002, the government created the new Northern Command. This is the first time since the Civil War that the U.S. military has been given an operational command inside the continental United States.

In 2005, the Washington Post reported that Northcom had developed battle plans for martial law in the U.S. One secret document, CONPLAN 2005, envisions 15 different scenarios where these plans could go into effect.

The U.S. has also used natural disasters like Katrina to push for an increased role for the military. According to the Washington Post, Bush advisor Karl Rove told the governor of Louisiana that she should explore legal options to impose martial law "or as close as we can get."

Spying by the military against U.S. persons, also supposedly prohibited, has greatly expanded in recent years. Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA) was created in 2002 supposedly to evaluate threats against Department of Defense installations. However, a secret 400-page document obtained by MSNBC revealed that CIFA had spied on more than 1500 "suspicious incidents" during a ten-month period, including a meeting of Quakers to plan a protest of military recruiting at local high schools and an anti-war protest in Los Angeles.

James Risen has exposed in the New York Times and in his book State of War: The Secret History of the CIA and the Bush Administration that the National Security Agency, which is under the Department of Defense, has been used in a massive campaign of illegal spying of U.S. citizens, including tapping phone calls and monitoring bank and financial records and the internet. (See Revolution #35, "Spies, Lies, Thugs and Torture.")

In 2006, the Military Commissions Act was passed which, in addition to legalizing torture, allows the president and military courts to declare anyone an enemy combatant without basic civil rights like habeas corpus.

Plans for massive detention centers are already being prepared. Pacific News Service reported that in early 2006, Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR) received a $385 million contract from the Department of Homeland Security to build detention and processing facilities to be used "in the event of an emergency influx of immigrants into the U.S. or to support the rapid development of new programs."

Would They Really Go That Far?

The Bush Regime's preparations for martial law are part of an extreme agenda. This is a regime that is setting out to create a world empire that is unchallenged and unchallengeable and has embarked on an endless war to bring this about. Along with this, they aim to restructure social relations in the U.S., doing away with many of the social and economic institutions that have characterized U.S. society since World War 2. Because of this extreme agenda, the Bush regime takes very seriously the possibility of jolts and ruptures and resistance and are preparing very extreme measures to deal with this.

On February 27, 1933, a fire broke out in the Reichstag (government) building in Germany. The next day Hitler and his Minister of the Interior Hermann Goering drafted the Reichstag Fire Decree, which suspended civil liberties and gave the central government total power. The decree was signed into law within days. After that point, opposition to Hitler became MUCH more difficult.

In the U.S. today, extreme measures much like the Reichstag Fire Decree are already being put into place--making it even more urgent that a determined struggle be waged to drive out the Bush regime and reverse this dangerous trajectory.

Separate source:

Opelika WWII German/Italian POW camp now being renovated.
Wilds of Alaska possibly East of Anchorage. No access by road however, there is a railway system. Facility holds 500,000 people.
Ft. Huachua, 20 miles from the Mexican border, 30 miles from Nogales. Rex 84 program. Emergency Custodial Facility.
Florence WWII German/Italian POW camp now being renovated.
Pinal County Gila River. Renovated WWII Japanese-American special internment detention facility.
Yuma County Colorado River. Renovated WWII Japanese-American special internment detention facility.
Ft. Chaffee Has a new runway for aircraft, new detention camp facilities with cap of 20,000 prisoners.
Chicot/Drew Counties Jerome. Renovated spec Interment camps for Japanese Americans WWII.
Descha County Rohwer. Renovated WWII Japanese-American special internment detention centers.
Blythville AFB This base was closed but is now being used as a camp location. New wooden barracks have been constructed at this location. This camp is surrounded by high wire topped with barbed wire, and has guard towers.
Berryville FEMA facility located east of Eureaka on Hwy 62.
Omaha FEMA facility located on Hwy 65 south of old wood processing plant. It is on an old dirt road that leads to a toxic waste dump. Note: The facility in Miss. is also located on an old toxic waste dump.
Oakdale Ca 90 miles East of San Francisco on HWY 120. Holds a minimum of 15,000 people. REX 84 program, Emergence Custodial Facility.
Vandenberg AFB Located midway between San Louis Obispo, and Santa Barbara. The base is on Hwy 1 and close to Hwy 101. REX 84 program, Emergency Custodial Facility.
Ft. Irwin Irwin is a remote Mtn region south of Death Valley, National Monument. This base is designated as inactive however, there is a concentration camp located at this facility about 30 miles from Interstate 15 in Barstow.
Inyo County Manzana. Renovated WWII Japanese-American special internment detention center.
Modoc County Tulelake. Renovated WWII Japanese-American special internment detention facility.
Sacramento Army Depot No specific data at this time.
Old Lowell AFB. Recently all new chain link fence was installed around the borders, plus 400,000 handcuffs and shackles were purchased by the government for this site.
Avon Park No data available
Camp Krome Located near Miami Dept of Justice detention and interrogation facility.
Elgin AFB This base is greater than 50 miles long extending from Pensacola Bay to Hwy 331 in De Funiak Springs. It is adjacent to Interstate 10 on the North and the Fort Walton Beach vacation spot. REX 84 program, Emergency Custodial Facility.
Ft. Benning Located East of Columbia near the Georgia/Alabama state line. - REX 84 program - Emergency Custodial Facility.
Unadilla, Ga Macon County; Located on east railroad street, Plunket road leads into the facility 1 1/2 miles from Unadilla on county road 230. This is a FEMA prison manned and staffed but no prisoners.
Oglethorpe, Ga. Macon County; facility is located five miles from Montezuma, three miles from Oglethorp. Traveling south on highway 49, located on the west side of the highway. This FEMA prison has no staff and no prisoners.
Morgan, Ga. Calhoun County; I-75 exit 32 to 300 south to Albany. Take highway 234 to Morgan. Go through Morgan taking highway 45 south. The FEMA facility is 1 1/2 miles on the right (west) side of highway 45. This FEMA facility is fully manned and staffed but no prisoners.
Camilla, Ga. Mitchell County; from Camilla take highway 19 south, travel 5.4 miles from 37/19 junction to Mount Zion Road, turn left (east) on Mount Zion Road. The FEMA facility is located on Mount Zion Road aprox: 5.7 miles south of Camilla. This facility is not manned or staffed and there are no prisoners.
Hawkinsville, Ga Pulaski County; located on fire road 100/ Upper River Road, 2 miles west from alternate 129 North 257 / 112 east. Five miles east of Hawkensville. This FEMA facility is fully manned and staffed but no prisoners.
Abbeyville, Ga. Wilcox County: south side of Abbeyvilleon highway 129 (Broad Street) off highway 280 (Main Street). This FEMA facility is fully manned and staffed but no prisoners.
McRae, Ga. Telfair County; 1.5 miles west of McRae on highway 134 (8th street). The FEMA facility is on Irwinton Ave. off 8th street. This facility is fully manned and staffed but no prisoners.
Frequencies: 153.7400 Georgia State Correctional Institutions 154.9050 Intrastate Coordinating (car to car state wide) 154.9350 Intrastate Coordinating (base to base / state wide) 155.3700 Georgia Police Intersystem (State wide)
Jerome County - Minipoka - Renovated WWII Japanese-American special internment detention facility.
Kooski plus 50 miles East. Near Lolo pass
Moose Creek Unmanned and there is a near by landing strip in or near a national forest.
Marseilles It is located on the Illinois river off Interstate 80 on Hwy 6. It is a relatively small facility with a cap of 1400 prisoners. Though it is small it is designed like other concentration camp facilities with high fences topped with barbed wire and guard towers.
Thousands of acres located just out of Indianapolis, Indiana holds a large Concentration camp facility complete with barracks, high fence, razor wire, towers, turnstyles, a railroad, helicopter landing pads, and what appears to be three large furnaces with 3inch mains on one of the buildings. This is a massive facility, still under construction with a completition date sometime in 1996.
Ft. Benjamin Harrison A U.S. Army facility located on the outskirts of Indianapolis will be used to hold prisoners.
Ft. Wayne FEMA Detention facility
Terre Haute FEMA Detention facility
Leavenworth U.S. Marshal's Fed Holding Facility PFP.
Concordia WWII POW German/Italian POW camp being renovated.
El Dorado Federal prison.
Topeka 80 acres converted to a holding camp.
Louisville FEMA Detention facility
Lexington FEMA Detention facility
Livingston WWII German/Italian POW camp being renovated.
Houlton WWII German/Italian POW camp being renovated.
Richards Gebaur AFB This facility is located in Grandview, A large civilian internment facility has been built on this facility, and base personnel are restricted from the area.
Kincheloe Correctional Facility (Formerly Kincheloe AFB with B-52 sized runways). Has five large prison buildings able to house 5000+. The facility has about 500 prisoners at this time. Location: 20 miles south of Sault Ste. Marie (Soo Locks) at the eastern end of the Upper Penninsula of Michigan.
K.I. Sawyer AFB Large construction program has been going on under the name of "Operation Gateway". High security is in place with a large portion of the base closed to civilian view. Location: 20 miles south of Marquette, MI in the Upper Penninsula of Michigan.
Raco Field Raco field is an interesting facility. The above ground runways form a perfect triangle. Few buildings appear on the surface, but ventilators can be seen. Civilian workers report that a subsurface facility exists. No publicity exists indicating what the role of Raco Field is, although something is there. To observers, it is an "inactive WWII base." Location: 15 miles NW of Kincheloe Correctional Facility on Hwy 28.
Bark River A large construction operation is ongoing in the Bark River, MI, area. Locals are tight-lipped. The facility is off the main highway in a wilderness area. While most of the locals say that the construction is associated with the ELF (extreme low frequency) project of world-wide communications, others suspect FEMA is involved. (Note: the ELF grid is located 100 miles NE of the Bark River area) Location: 20 miles west of Escanaba in the upper penninsula of Michigan.
Bay City Sits on Saginaw Bay which connects to Lake Huron. This facility has high fencing, barbed wire and guard towers.
Grayling Camp Grayling Michigan National Guard Base. Detention facility. Guards towers, razor wire.
Southwest area of the state FEMA Detention facility
Central part of the state FEMA Detention facility
Detroit FEMA Detention facility
Hancock County - The NASA facility at this location has two camps the first being located at the end of Kiln road at Waveland, and then the next road after ammo road at the Post Office. The second camp is located in the center of a rest station back from the Interstate. Inmates from the Hancock County jail claim they have worked details involving the delivery of food to these camps under the supervision of U.N. Guards.
Scottsbluff WWII German/Italian POW camp being renovated.
Northwest corner of state FEMA Detention facility
Northeast corner of state FEMA Detention facility
South Central Hastings area FEMA Detention facility
Elco There is a prison facility 10 miles out of Elco.
Wells Camp is located in the O'Niel basin area, 40 miles North of Wells, and West off Hwy 93, 25 miles.
Winnemucca Camp is located at the I-80 mile marker 112, on the south side of the road and 3/4 miles off of the road.
Wells/Winnemucca Camp is lcated near the base line of the mountains. Reno Nevada plus 150 miles east south side of road if your headed west, 150 yards off the road.
 New Jersey:
Ft. Dix Fully operational prison camp with approximately 35,000 prisoners.
 New York:
Ft. Drum located in upstate New York, probable location for Eastern area processing of people, located near the St. Lawrence river and access to Lake Ontario. Both waterways may be used for transport. Located very close to Canada.
Watertown FEMA Detention facility
Albany FEMA Detention facility
Buffalo FEMA Detention facility
Cleveland FEMA Detention facility
Columbus FEMA Detention facility
Cincinnati FEMA Detention facility
Lima FEMA Detention facility
Oklahoma City Tinker AFB, This is a civilian detention facility, all base personnel are prohibited from going near the area, and the area is under constant guard.
McAlester WWII German/Italian POW camp being renovated.
Will Rogers Air Port This is a newly constructed FEMA facility, and it is believed that it will be used as a primary processing center for prisoners West of the Mississippi River.
Camp Hill Camp Hill Pa located off I-15. Sits across the navigable Susquehanna River from Harrisburg. Close to Cumberland Army Depot and the Camp Hill Correctional facility.
Crossville WWII German/Italian POW Camp being renovated.
Ft.Hood Ft. Hood has a newly built concentration camp, constructed complete with towers, high fencing, and barbed wire.
Mexia WWII German/ Italian POW camp being renovated.
Amarillo FEMA Detention facility
Millard County - Central Utah - Renovated WWII Japanese-American special internment detention facility.
Skull Valley Camp William property - west of the old bombing range South/southwestern portion of Camp Williams This camp was discovered by a man and his son who were rabbit hunting, they were discovered and apprehended.
Utah Lake 15 miles south of Saratoga Recreation center 200 - 300 yards off the road Black wire 40 to 50 feet tall, made to look something like a golf driving range.
Cedar City East of Cedar City Utah - no more data.
Okanogan County borders Canada and is a site for a massive concentration camp capable of holding hundreds of thousands of people.
Ft. McCoy Located in Western Wisconsin 30 miles East of LaCrosse between the point where 90 and 94 intersect. REX 84 program, Emergency Custodial Facility.
Central part of the state FEMA Detention facility.
Park County - Hart Mountain - Renovated WWII Japanese-American special internment detention facilities.
North Central part of the state FEMA Detention facility
Southeast part of the state FEMA Detention facility
Southwest part of the state FEMA Detention facility
East Yellowstone - Manned facility. Investigators were apprehended by European soldiers, unable to identify the language used by the foreign soldiers, American government helped clear the situation.

Derived from USChronology.com

5/13/1861 - (Standing) Army of the united States Major General Benjamin Butler declares martial law in Baltimore Maryland.
NOTE: This is an ominous reminder of one of the reasons Thomas Jefferson listed in the unanimous Declaration (of Independence) for breaking away from Great Britain: 'He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected.'
Thomas DiLorenzo, The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda, and an Unnecessary War, (Roseville, California: Prima, 2002), 150. Margret Leech, Reveille in Washington: 1860-1865, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1941), 424

8/30/1861 -  (Standing) Army of the united States Major General John C. Fremont declares martial law in Missouri ordering mass executions and property confiscations, all without benefit of Trial by Jury.
Williams, 36.

9/12/1861 - (Standing) Army of the united States Major General Nathaniel P. Banks declares martial law in Maryland, arresting 13 State legislators, which deprives the legislature of a quorum to conduct business.
NOTE: This is an ominous reminder of one of the reasons Thomas Jefferson listed in the unanimous Declaration (of Independence) for breaking away from Great Britain: 'He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected.'
Thomas DiLorenzo, The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda, and an Unnecessary War, (Roseville, California: Prima, 2002), 150. J. Thomas Scharf, History of Maryland From the Earliest Period to the Present Day, (Hatboro, Pennsylvania: Tradition Press, 1967), 3:441-42

11/19/1861 - Republican (nationalist) President Lincoln appoints Major General Henry Wager Halleck as commander of the Department of the Missouri (which includes Illinois, Missouri and the Commonwealth of Kentucky (west of the Cumberland River)). Halleck's first act is to issue General Order Number One, placing his jurisdiction under martial law, and suspending Habeas Corpus, and prosecuting brutal retaliations against pro-Confederate guerillas.
J. Matthew Gallman, ed., Civil War Chronicle, (New York: Agincourt, 2000), 123-24.

10/20/1862 - Presidential/conservative Reconstruction begins: Commander-in-Chief Lincoln issues Executive Order One (the first numbered executive order) establishing a provisional court during the military occupation of the Confederate State of Louisiana. An Executive Order can only be issued by the Commander-in-Chief'a military title'and only has jurisdiction over areas under martial law.
Clifford L. Lord, ed., Presidential Executive Orders, Numbers 1-8030, 1862-1938, (Buffalo, New York: Dennis & Co., 1944), 1

7/19/1863 - (Standing) Army of the united States Brigadier General Thomas Ewing, Jr. declares martial law in Leavenworth, Kansas, because he 'could not get along with the mayor.'
Letter from Thomas Ewing, Jr. Brigadier-General, Department of the Missouri, to Lieutenant-Colonel C.W. Marsh, Asst. Adj. Gen. Department of the Missouri (July 22, 1863),War of the Rebellion, series I, volume 22, part 2, 388-89.

7/5/1864 -  Commander-in-Chief Lincoln declares martial law in the Commonwealth of Kentucky, with the object of influencing the State's in their selection of Presidential Electors.
James G. Randall The Civil War and Reconstruction, Boston: D.C. Heath and Co., 1937), 322

10/26/2001 - While the United States Armed Forces (private mercenaries) are in Afghanistan defending 'all freedom-loving people everywhere in the world,' Republican (fascist/socialist) de facto President George W. Bush (having received an unlawful advantage of 41 ineligible Electoral votes) signs the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) Act of 2001 (implying legislators who voted against it are not patriotic):
permitting life in prison without benefit of Trial by Jury for foreign nationals whose nation of origin will not accept their forced return;
extending the period for a further unlawful suspension of Habeas Corpus from 48 hours to seven days;
authority given to the secretary of state and attorney general to designate any organization as 'terrorist,' such as Operation Rescue, Greenpeace, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals; protestors against the World Trade Organization or the United States Navy target bombing practice on Vieques Island;
allowing for detention and deportation of individuals who lend financial support to such organizations deemed to be 'terrorist' by either the secretary of state or attorney general;
allowing statute enforcement officers (acting under-color-of-law) to enter a home, take photographs, 'recover' (seize) property and electronic communications for up to three months'without the knowledge of the resident;
requiring that previously confidential student data be made available to Federal enforcement officers (acting under-color-of-law);
making it illegal for United States enemy/subject/citizens to transfer ten thousand 'dollars' in Federal Reserve (central bank) Notes (Bills of Credit) in or out of the U.S.
During the signing ceremony Bush claims, 'Today, we take an essential step in defeating terrorism, while protecting the constitutional rights of all Americans.'
 NOTE: The USA PATRIOT Act is almost an exact duplicate of that submitted by Democratic (socialist/fascist) de facto President Clinton, Esq., to, and subsequently rejected by, the Republican (fascist/socialist) CONgress, six years previous. All deliberations were conducted behind closed doors. There was no conference committee action between the house of representatives and the senate. There were no committee hearing reports; nor were opponents of the act allowed to testify against it. Nor were any copies of the 131-page, single-spaced act available for legislators to read.
A month after the passage of this act, the department of justice requested further loosening of the provisions regarding 'roving wiretaps,' to allow the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court to approve warrants where Federal statute enforcement agents (acting under-color-of-law) do not wish to disclose the identity of the person they wish to monitor.

In the two years since the passage of the USA PATRIOT Act, prosecutors and statute enforcement officers (acting under-color-of-law) have used the act less often against suspected international terrorists, and more often against United States enemy/subject/citizens engaged in illegal activities, such as smuggling, drug dealing, money laundering.
 Ted Bridis, 'Additional Surveillance Proposals Considered,' Orange County (California) Register, 30 November 2001, News:17. 'Common Criminals Facing Patriot Act,' Orange County (California) Register, 15 September 2003, News:10. Robert A. Levy, 'Toward Martial Law,' Liberty, 16 (January 2002): 29.
 [updated 12/24/2005] Thanks to Dave Seely for his contributions to this entry.
 Clinton Terrorism Legislation Threatens Constitutional Rights
[available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~cnss/surveillance/threatens.html]
 FBI Flyer Names Constitution Defenders As Terror Suspects
[available at: http://www.rense.com/general17/fly.htm]

10/31/2001 - While the United States Armed Forces (private mercenaries) are in Afghanistan defending 'all freedom-loving people everywhere in the world,' John Ashcroft, attorney general, issues AG Order No. 2529-2001, allowing the confidential communications between inmates of Federal prisons and their legal counsel to be monitored.
Pete Yost, 'New Rule Lets Prisons Monitor Calls, Mail,' Orange County (California) Register, 19 November 2001, News:11. 
Attorneys, employed by the Centers for Disease Control, issue the 'Model State Emergency Health Powers Act,' to be submitted to all state legislatures, that is intended to give the nation a uniform health code, passed through the states. The act has such a loose definition of what is a 'public health emergency' that a governor might be able to declare a state of emergency if one case of childhood smallpox appears at a government-run public school. The governor would then be empowered to suspend civil liberties, 'recover' (seize) property without compensation, impose martial law, and isolate 'infectious' persons in internment camps'without due process. Residents who refuse medical examinations, testing, or inoculations are subject to misdemeanor penalties and coerced isolation. The state, governor, public health authorities, statute enforcement officers are exempt from civil damages that might arise from enforcement of the act.

11/13/2001 - While the United States Armed Forces (private mercenaries) are in Afghanistan defending 'all freedom-loving people everywhere in the world,' de facto Commander-in-Chief George W. Bush (having received an unlawful advantage of 41 ineligible Electoral votes) issues Military Order One, establishing secret military tribunals to judge'without Trial by Jury'individuals suspected of international terrorism, either Afghan Taliban (Pushtun for 'students of Islam') partisans or 'Afghani' (Arab, Pakistani, etc.) partisans of Al Qaida. For purposes of 'national security' these courts will not follow the rules of due process:
exculpatory (proof of innocence) evidence may be kept from the defendant and his counsel;
the court is allowed to make up its own rules;
only a two-thirds vote is necessary for conviction;
no review by a higher court'a violation of Article III, Section 1.
This order establishes 'the right to use them [military tribunals] if he so chooses.'
 NOTE: This is a direct violation of Article V of Amendment: 'No person shall be held to answer for a ... crime, unless on a ... indictment of a Grand Jury. ...' The only exception to this are members of the Militia (who are called into the service of the United States, by Congress) of which there has been no Militia of the united States for a century. By CONgress' not having declared war, Bush avoids having to treat captured Taliban Afghans and Al Qaeda 'Afghanis' (Arabs, Pakistanis, etc.) as prisoners of war, thus avoiding having to abide by the Geneva Conventions. Instead of giving them courts martial (which have greater due process guarantees than civilian trials), the 'detainees' can be judged by military commissions, in which the prosecution has the lowest burden of proof possible.
 Postscript: Six months later, there would be twelve hundred who were detained without due process.
 U.S. President, George W. Bush (November 13, 2001), 'Military Order--Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism,' Weekly Comp., 37 (November 19, 2001): 1665-68. Ross Baker, 'Nobody Named Bush King Yet,' Los Angeles Times, 27 November 2001, B15. William Safire, 'Putting a Noose on Justice,' Orange County (California) Register, 15 November 2001, Local:9. 'U.S. Makes War on Bill of Rights,' Orange County (California) Register, 16 November 2001, Local:8. James Gerstenzang and Josh Meyer, 'Bush Defends War Tribunals as Necessary,' Los Angeles Times, 30 November 2001, A1, 25. Ron Kampeas, 'U.S. Allies Allow Red Cross to Access Captives,' St. George (Utah) Spectrum and Daily News, 27 December 2001, A9. Josh Meyer, 'Judge Delay Her Order to Reveal Names of Detainees,' Los Angeles Times, 16 August 2002, A19.
Where is the invasion, where is the insurrection, what 'Laws of the Union,' are being enforced? Why hasn't the CONgress enforced these vital elements to prevent the establishment of standing armies? Because it wants a standing army? For what good purpose? Do we have a Caesar crossing a Rubicon in our future? '' JL
The supreme court, of the corporate United states, hands down TRW v. Andrews: the statute of limitations on a civil suit for fraud, begins when the fraud is committed, not when it is discovered, by the victim.
David G. Savage, 'Court Set for New Term and Novel Issues,' Los Angeles Times, 30 September 2001, A37.

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