Homocysteine - This B vitamin-dependent amino acid increases risk for heart attack, stroke, and depression.
Fibrinogen - This blood-clotting protein can also escalate heart attack risk.
C-reactive protein - CRP is a marker of inflammation and a cardiovascular risk factor. Inflammation in coronary plaque makes it more prone to “rupture,” leading to heart attack.
Insulin - Even in people with normal blood sugar, a high insulin level signifies “pre-diabetes,” which can be a potent risk factor for heart disease.
Ankle-Brachial Index - The ankle-brachial index is a reliable, inexpensive, and non-invasive assessment that can indicate the presence of peripheral arterial disease, a condition in which the arteries of the extremities become progressively occluded by plaque, leading to reduced blood flow. Because peripheral arterial disease is a manifestation of the atherosclerotic process, this test can also help assess cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease risk, as well as overall mortality risk.
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