The English Bill of Rights

PREAMBLE: And whereas the said late king James the Second having abdicated the government and the throne being thereby vacant, His Highness the prince of Orange did cause letters to be written to the lords spiritual and temporal, being Protestant; and other letters to the several counties, cities, universities, boroughs and Cinque powers for the choosing of such persons to represent them, as were right to sent to parliament, to meet and sit at Westminster upon the two and twentieth day of January in the year one-thousand six-hundred eighty and eight, in or to [guarantee]...that their religion, laws, and liberties might not again be in danger of being subverted; upon which letters election having been accordingly made, And upon thereon the said lords spiritual and temporal and commons pursuant to their respective letters and election being now assembled in a full and fee representative of this nation, taking into their most serious consideration the best means for attaining the ends aforesaid, do in the first place for the vindication and asserting their ancient rights and liberties, declare:

ARTICLE 1: That the pretended power of suspending; and of laws or the execution of laws by regal authority with consent of parliament is illegal.

ARTICLE 2: That the pretended power of dispensing with laws or the execution of laws by regal authority as it has been assumed and exercised of late is illegal.

ARTICLE 3: That the commission for erecting the late court of commissioners for ecclesiastical causes and all other commission and court like nature are illegal and pernicious.

ARTICLE 4: That the levying money for or to the sue of the crown by pretence of prerogative with grant of parliament for a longer time or in other manner than the same is illegal.

ARTICLE 5: That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitions is illegal.

ARTICLE 6: That the raising or keeping of a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace unless it be with consent of parliament is against law.

ARTICLE 7: That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defence suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law.

ARTICLE 8: That election of members of parliament ought to be free.

ARTICLE 9: That the freedom of speech and debates or proceeding in parliament ought not to be impeached or question in any court or place our of parliament.

ARTICLE 10: That excessive bail ought not to be required nor excessive fines imposed nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.

ARTICLE 11: That jurors ought to be duly impaneled and returned and jurors which pass upon men in trials for high treason ought to be freeholders.

ARTICLE 12: That all grants and promises of fines and forfeitures of particular persons before conviction are illegal and void.

ARTICLE 13: And that for the redress of all grievances and for the amending, strengthening and preserving of the laws parliaments ought to be held frequently. proposed by Parliament: January 22, 1688 assented to by King William and Queen Mary: February 13, 1689

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