Original First and Second Amendments


Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine. THE conventions of a number of the States having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best insure the beneficient ends of its institution.

RESOLVED BY THE Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses concurring , that the following Articles be proposed to the Legistures of the Several States as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said Legislatures to be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the said Constitution; viz,,t articles in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution....


One representative for every thirty thousand, but there should be not less that 200 Representatives nor more than one Represenative for every 50,000 persons.


No law, varying the compensentation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.


Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

These articles were authored by James Madison. Article II was finally ratified by the requisite number of States in 1993.

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